CD28 and CD3 have complementary roles in T-cell traction forces

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Cells have the remarkable ability to sense the mechanical properties of the extracellular environment. This has been developed primarily in the context of cell interaction with extracellular matrix through integrins, but recent studies showed that T cells exhibit mechanosensing through CD3 and CD28, nonintegrin receptors that provide activation and costimulatory signals. This report demonstrates that T cells generate significant forces through the T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD28, and delineates the contributions of each in force generation. Moreover, the distribution of force generation and local assembly of active signaling intermediates suggest similarities between TCR- and integrin-based connections between the cell and substrate.

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